Hepatitis – infectious disease manifested jaundice, which is caused by viral liver disease. Transmitted by fecal-oral route, with contaminated water and foods. Sources of infection are ill. Epidemic jaundice was first described as far back as ancient times, but the hypothesis of the contagious nature of the jaundice was first formulated by Botkin only in 1888. Further investigation led to the division in 1960 viral hepatitis with fecal-oral transmission (A) and serum hepatitis (B).
Were later identified and other viral hepatitis: C, D, E, etc. Hepatitis A virus is highly resistant to environmental factors and disinfectants. The duration of survival of the virus in foods up to 1 year. The virus usually enters the body through fecal-oral route, ie by eating infected food and water. Less characteristic, but not less important mode of transmission of the virus is spread from infected blood and blood products. The most severe clinical forms of viral hepatitis A are cholestatic (literally "Stagnation of bile) and fulminant (lightning). The first time the dominant symptoms are severe jaundice, a significant increase in liver and strong itching, caused by irritation of the nerve receptors of the skin components of bile. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) – the agent of hepatitis B, the main representative of the family gepadnovirusov.
This family also includes the hepatotropic hepatitis viruses marmots, ground squirrels, ducks and squirrels. Hepatitis B (HBV) occurs with blood, its products, semen, saliva, vaginal secretions, sweat and tears from acute and chronic patients. Infection is realized for blood transfusion, use of unsterile medical instruments, with homo-and heterosexual contact, neonates born to mothers – carriers of the virus.